A serious public health concern related to ILOs is the routine use of antibiotics in livestock production, which creates antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. In 1997, the World Health Organization called for the curtailment of antibiotic use in animal production.
- has conducted research into the extent of antibiotic use in livestock production in the US. Their report, Hogging It!: Estimates of Antimicrobial Abuse in Livestock, also includes recommendations to prevent the loss of antibiotics for treating human illnesses.
- As of January 2007, the EU placed a ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the livestock industry.